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  • 最近,國務院國資委公布的一則人事消息引發各界高度關注。消息中,一些央企總經理職位由過去的“任命”改為了“提名”。在外界看來,這是改革授權經營體制所帶來的變化,更表明中國國有企業改革再次邁出了堅實步伐。分析人士普遍認為,近年來中國國有企業改革全面深化、企業黨建有力加強、國資監管效能提高、產業布局結構優化、運行質量穩步改善,國企經營的質量和效益顯著提高。未來,只有咬定青山不放松、堅持改革不停步,才能讓國有企業進一步“強身健體”、提質增效,為中國經濟實現更高質量發展貢獻力量。

    處僵治困瘦身健體

    “任命”改為“提名”,就是國企公司治理體系不斷完善的信號。中國人民大學國企改革與發展研究中心研究員李錦表示,從政府管理的企業變成有限責任公司,要在運行機制上做出實際改變。這有利于明確出資人、董事會、監事會、經理層和黨組織之間的權責邊界,有助于促使國企真正成為依法自主經營、自負盈虧、自擔風險、自我約束、自我發展的獨立市場主體,從而激發企業內在活力、轉換經營機制、實現更好發展。

    據國務院國資委總會計師沈瑩介紹,2017年國資委按照中央推動供給側結構性改革的要求,全面部署“瘦身健體”提質增效攻堅戰,從增收節支、布局結構、管理提升、加強黨建、風險控制等方面都做了大量工作,特別是在“僵尸企業”處置,化解過剩產能,“壓減”法人層級、降低成本、推動重組整合、降杠桿、減負債等方面都下了很大功夫,有力地推動了中央國有企業的結構優化、轉型升級和提質增效。

    相關數據顯示,2017年,國資監管系統企業實現營業收入50.0萬億元,同比增長14.7%,實現利潤總額2.9萬億元,同比增長23.5%。其中,中央企業實現營業收入26.4萬億元,同比增長13.3%,實現利潤總額1.4萬億元,同比增長15.2%,增速創五年來最好水平。

    改革注重質量效益

    總體來看,2017年廣大國企交出的成績單可圈可點、亮點紛呈。

    比如,中國鐵路工程總公司旗下的中鐵工業,對接國際鋼橋制造標準,加強技術引進和自主研發,在自動化、智能化焊接方面積累了強大技術,具備了和歐美企業一較高低的實力。再比如,中石油旗下中國石油勘探院歷經七年技術攻關,于日前發布了“全新一代多井評價軟件CIFLog2.0”,實現了單井評價到多井綜合評價的重大跨越,進一步提升了我國復雜油氣儲層的測井評價能力。

    同時,各地方在國企改革上亦表現不俗。在山東,產業相近、業務相關、優勢互補的國有企業被重新劃分整合;嚴重資不抵債、不具備正常經營條件的98家企業則被就地注銷關閉。在天津,國有股“一股獨大”的局面正在混合所有制改革中悄然改變,職業經理人制度亦加速推行。

    北京師范大學公司治理與企業發展研究中心主任高明華在接受本報記者采訪時指出,當前國有企業生產經營取得的可喜跡象,體現了公司制改革、混合所有制改革等一系列改革措施所產生的作用。政府部門由“管人”“管事”“管資產”向“管資本”“做好出資人”方向轉變,其目的就是讓國企運營更加貼近市場需要,扎實提升發展的質量和效益。

    有望增加公共福利

    企業界人士表示,在民營企業參與國有企業重組或混改的過程中,依然存在規模上“重大輕小”、身份上“重公輕私”的現象,一些國企中董事會決策職能有待進一步加強。

    在專家看來,混合所有制仍將成為未來國企改革的看點。國家行政學院經濟學部教授丁文鋒撰文指出,發展混合所有制經濟是國企提高全球競爭力、成長為世界一流企業的重要途徑,其也將成為國有經濟的主要存在形式。未來,改革方案設計和實施都要突出高質量要求,注重引入有制衡能力和戰略合作的新股東,優化股權結構、不“為混而混”,同時高質量地推進混改相關配套政策同步推進。

    “中共十九大明確指出‘我國經濟已由高速增長階段轉向高質量發展階段’。更高質量的經濟發展意味著人民生活水平提高及獲得感增強,這也對國企提出了更高要求。一方面,國企要盡可能盈利,讓國有資產保值增值;另一方面,國企又要提供更優質的公共產品及服務。”高明華說,從宏觀來看,追求盈利與提供公共產品雖然表面上有一定的互斥性,但本質上都是旨在提升公共福利水平。因此,只要嚴守增加公共福利這一方向,就能不斷做好國企改革各項工作,進而為中國經濟轉型升級增添更多底氣。(王俊嶺)

    2018年01月24日

    經濟參考報:航天科工 軍民融合結碩果
    光明日報:為“一帶一路”建設走向西歐提供著力點

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