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  • 深海探測、深海開發,這是中國深海戰略的目標指向。在任何海域深度科考暢行無阻,業內人士稱之為“全海深”科考。要實現“全海深”科考目標,中國海洋科技工作者必須突破1.1萬米深潛技術,進入世界大洋最深處即太平洋馬里亞納海溝挑戰者深淵。在馬里亞納海溝最深處,深約1.1萬米處的地方,叫挑戰者深淵。

    近日,中國深潛技術裝備的發展接連傳來好消息。深海勇士號作為“863”計劃海洋技術領域“4500米載人潛水器總體集成”課題成果,通過科技部組織的驗收,并計劃于明年開始試驗性應用。萬米級載人潛水器研制工作進入關鍵階段,其最核心部件之一,載人球艙繼完成沖壓成型后成功進行了“門窗”開孔。這些標志著中國在深潛裝備的自主研發和創新方面取得重大突破,奔向“全海深”科考時代。


    載人深潛

    穩步向萬米級挺進

    蛟龍號是中國自行設計、自主集成研制而成的載人深潛器,是中國海洋科技的一座豐碑。它作為“863”計劃中的重大研究專項之一于2002年正式啟動。2009年至2012年,“接連取得1000米級、3000米級、5000米級和7000米級海試成功。2012年6月,在馬里亞納海溝創造了下潛7062米的中國載人深潛紀錄,也是世界同類作業型潛水器最大下潛深度紀錄。之后,蛟龍號踏上了試驗應用航次的旅程,并在深海科考實戰中表現出優秀的性能。

    鑒于蛟龍號的研制依托于國際合作,包括載人艙耐壓球殼和一些部件如傳感器、推力器等是從國外引進,這就要求進一步增強自主創新能力,建設新一代載人潛水器,于是,4500米級的“深海勇士”應運而生。其建造實現了鈦合金載人艙、超高壓海水泵、低噪聲推進器、液壓源、充油鋰電池、浮力材料等關鍵技術突破,將關鍵部件國產化率提升到超過九成。這表明,中國全面具備了自主研發和制造深海載人潛水器的能力。下一步,中國人把目光直接瞄準了萬米載人深潛器建造,實現載人“全海深”目標,并且形成了民間隊與國家隊兩支并行的攻關力量。

    為了早日探索出一條中國萬米載人潛器建造之路,蛟龍號原第一副總設計師、“載人深潛英雄”崔維成在2012年蛟龍號7000米級海試凱旋后的第二天,就從中船重工702所辭職到上海海洋大學,并組建該校“深淵科學技術研究中心”,啟動名為“彩虹魚”的1.1萬米全海深載人潛水器研制。他四處奔走募集資金,于2016年3月建成了中國首艘萬米載人深淵器專用科考船張謇號。今年6月底,上海彩虹魚海洋科技股份有限公司與芬蘭一家公司簽約,雙方將就萬米級載人深潛器彩虹魚號的核心部件載人艙進行聯合研制。在此之前,雙方已經完成了載人艙樣球的研制,并完成了破壞性實驗,進入真艙的研制階段。

    就在崔維成探索通過引入民間資本,搭建國際合作平臺,建造萬米級載人深潛器的同時,以他的老同事、中船重工第七〇二研究所水下工程研究開發部副主任葉聰為總工程師的國家隊也開始了萬米載人潛器的研制工作。作為蛟龍號主任設計師和深海勇士號的副總設計師、總質量師,葉聰可謂載人深潛的“老將”。他透露說,目前,載人艙用鈦合金研制取得重大突破,成功研制出一種新型高強度高韌度可焊接鈦合金,并完成了載人球艙沖壓和出入口、觀察窗的開孔工作,為潛水器的建造奠定了基礎。此外,研制團隊還要攻克,耐壓構件密封、控制、水聲通信等一系列技術難關。

    無人潛器

    實現“全海深”突破

    無人潛器是實現深海進入的重要方式和途徑之一,中國海洋科技工作者在大力推進載人潛器研制的同時,在無人潛器研發方面付諸了巨大努力,取得了突出成就,不僅實現了種類的多元化,而且已經突破了1.1萬米深度,實現了“全海深”目標。

    2016年6月至8月間,探索一號科考船在馬里亞納海溝挑戰者深淵開展了中國首次綜合性萬米深淵科考。在此次科考中,由中國科學院沈陽自動化研究所自主研制的海斗號無人潛水器成功完成兩次萬米級下潛應用,最大潛深達10767米,創造了中國無人潛水器的最大下潛及作業深度紀錄。

    繼海斗號之后,崔維成領銜的深淵科考隊再次實現萬米深潛。2016年12月至今年2月間,張謇號載著科考隊在西南太平洋海域,成功實施了3臺萬米級著陸器和1臺萬米級全海深無人潛水器科考任務,這標志著中國成為世界上第一個同時擁有無人深潛器和多臺著陸器協同作業能力的國家。

    下潛深度達萬米,實現“全海深”無疑是個硬指標,但擁有多樣化、強大的作業能力當然也很重要。經過多年努力,中國已經研制開發了海龍號、海馬號、潛龍一號等不同作業深度和作業能力的無人潛水器。

    3500米級海龍號無人纜控潛水器是中國在海底高溫和復雜地形的特殊環境下開展海洋調查和作業的高精技術裝備,它在國際上首次采用了虛擬控制系統和動力定位系統等一些自主研發的先進技術,可以在水下自由游動,開展移位勘探。4500米級無人潛水器海馬號是中國開發的深海無人遙控潛水作業系統,曾搭乘海洋六號綜合科學考查船,在南海中央海盆底部成功進行了作業試驗,標志著中國全面掌握了大深度無人遙控潛水器的各項關鍵技術,并在關鍵技術國產化方面取得實質性進展,是繼蛟龍號之后又一標志性成果。6000米無人無纜潛器潛龍一號是中國國際海域資源調查與開發“十二五”規劃重點項目之一,是中國自主研發、研制的服務于深海資源勘察的實用化深海裝備,實現了國產深海資源勘查裝備領域的重大進步。

    建設深潛強國

    贏得媒體贊譽

    2012年3月26日早5時15分,北緯11度22分,東經142度35分,西太平洋,關島西南部海域,時年68歲的美國導演卡梅隆鉆進了深海挑戰者號載人潛器,開始下潛。6時33分,他下潛到7070米深度。“中國的蛟龍號是全球潛航力最強的載人潛航器,我剛剛超越了它的最大運作深度。幾分鐘前,我也超越了俄羅斯和平號、法國鸚鵡螺號和日本深海6500號的最大深度。我已經打破了所有現存載人潛航器的紀錄。”卡梅隆充滿興奮與驕傲之情。10時30分,他下潛深度居然達到10877米。

    卡梅隆的這次下潛所駕駛的深海挑戰者號雖然只是探險型深潛器,沒有科考能力,但是極大地刺激了中國“載人深潛英雄”崔維成,他決心盡快研制出功能更強大的中國全海深載人潛器,只有這樣才能繼續保持中國在此領域的引領地位。帶著強烈的使命感和緊迫感,他選擇了從中船重工702所辭職,并組建了研發萬米載人潛器的新團隊,探索一條利用民間資本支持前沿科技的新途徑。而隨著國家科技部將1.1萬米載人深潛器列入“十三五”重大專項,中船重工和中科院等科研力量再次集結起來組成“國家隊”,進行深潛攻關。這樣,就呈現出“兩班人馬共奮進”的生動局面。“在深淵科學的最前沿,中國擁有了‘雙保險’,我愿意做國家的備份。”崔維成如是表示。

    中國在深潛領域的巨大進步和雄心引起了國際主流媒體的廣泛關注。俄羅斯衛星網刊文,報道了中國全海深載人潛水器主要研制力量中船重工的情況和蛟龍號的強大性能,認為全海深載人潛水器將可使中國海洋科考在全球所有海域具有作業能力。報道還結合中國國土資源部發布的提升“深地、深海、深空“的探測能力的戰略規劃,盛贊中國在海洋科技能力取得的進步。無獨有偶,香港《南華早報》在報道中國萬米載人深潛器研發時,也特別提到,國土資源部“十三五”科技創新政策把“深地、深海、深空”作為主攻方向和突破口,并把新潛器的研制看做加速海洋科技發展的表現,也是落實上述政策步驟。(李建興)

    2017年12月06日

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