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  • 從港口裝卸用“機械抓斗”替代工人肩挑手扛,到智能碼頭實現自動化操作, 在港航業的發展中,技術創新從未停滯過。而隨著一個又一個自動化碼頭的誕生,我們確信,全球自動化碼頭的春天已經到來。

    不只港航企業關注自動化碼頭

    “全球自動化集裝箱碼頭發展的春天即將來臨,抓住了自動化碼頭建設的主流趨勢,供求雙方就會不斷取得共贏。”前段時間,在上海舉行的全球碼頭智能化解決方案交流論壇上,上海振華重工向來自全球的用戶和合作伙伴分享了自動化碼頭建設的心得。

    上海振華重工以港口機械生產起家,其港機產品已遠銷海外99個國家和地區。據英國著名的行業權威雜志《World cargo News》統計,上海振華重工已連續19年保持港口機械產品全球市場占有率第一,平均達到70%以上;2016年度,其港口機械產品全球市場份額更是達到了82%。截至目前,上海振華重工制造的2000多臺集裝箱岸橋、3000多臺場橋矗立在全球200多座港口碼頭上。

    然而,絕對的市場占有優勢并沒有令上海振華重工感到高枕無憂。近年來,全球航運經濟處于低位徘徊狀態,行業內需要更高效、更環保的港口產品,同時,上海振華重工也面臨產品升級和提高附加值的壓力。

    為此,上海振華重工花了近20年時間在自動化碼頭領域進行系統化深度耕耘,自主研發出新一代全自動化碼頭裝卸系統,如今已為廈門港、青島港、上海洋山港四期以及意大利VADO港、阿聯酋阿布扎比哈里發港等海內外港口打造了多套自動化碼頭系統裝備。

    上海振華重工董事長朱連宇在論壇上坦言,自動化碼頭系統具有“三高一低一短”等優勢,也就是高效率、高可靠性、高先進性,以及低成本和周期短。“如今的振華重工具備了提供現代化碼頭一站式解決方案的能力,包括仿真規劃、港機設備、系統集成和運營維護。”

    這次關于自動化碼頭的討論不僅吸引了馬士基集團、上海國際港務集團、中遠海運集團、地中海航運、東方海外、長榮海運和萬海航運旗下港口運營公司等世界知名航運公司的目光,還吸引了新加坡港務局、和記黃埔港口、招商局港口等專業公共碼頭運營商和全球排名前列的碼頭設備供應商的關注,甚至一些“外行”也給予了高度重視,比如微軟。

    微軟距離港口生產有多遠?事實證明,完全可以實現“零距離”。

    微軟公司中國企業服務部副總裁王皓介紹說,人工智能及大數據運用等與當今港航經濟的發展潮流相契合,數字化將給碼頭生產和碼頭供應鏈帶來全新的變化。

    港航經濟將越來越出乎意料

    碼頭現場空無一人,通過大量采用自動化信息技術實施的電腦自助操控,任由大型岸橋從船上裝卸集裝箱,輪胎吊自行滑動在堆場上堆放貨柜,帶頂升功能的自動化導引小車(L-AGV)則來回穿梭,最終安放到集裝箱車輛上……即將于今年底開港試運行的上海洋山深水港四期,向人們展現了一個標準“無人碼頭”的景象,而它也是迄今為止全球最大的自動化碼頭,港口的集裝箱從港區裝卸到碼頭運輸、倉儲均將實現自動化運作,生產作業實現零排放。

    在保證生產安全、運營高效的前提下,自動化碼頭已經被越來越多的港航企業所接受。

    此次論壇上,與會嘉賓們針對碼頭智能化各個環節中的關鍵點,從碼頭布局設計到港口機械設備選型,再延展到智能運維,深入探討了智能化碼頭的解決方案和發展方向,為全球港口物流體系、世界航運貿易、海洋經濟發展和智慧城市建設獻計獻策。

    嘉賓們認為,未來的港航經濟可能越來越出乎人們的意料:通過自動化技術,昔日的萬人大港可以變成自動化的“無人碼頭”;除了碼頭作業越來越智能化外,借助信息技術,碼頭供應鏈也在悄然生變,碼頭設備生產、供應、運輸、維護信息均可通過手機APP進行查詢,碼頭設備供應商和碼頭企業還可以進行線上交易。

    上世紀50年代,集裝箱化的海洋運輸剛剛起步,提高裝卸效率始終是全球各集裝箱碼頭港口發展的重要話題。到了上世紀90年代,集裝箱自動化裝卸技術開始進入碼頭業者的視線。步入21世紀以后,港口集裝箱裝卸從追求效率向自動化、人工智能及大數據運用擴展,傳統港口如何搭上科技的潮流,實現智能化、低污染成為業內高度關注的焦點。

    自動化碼頭的春天已到來

    “一帶一路”倡議推動了全球航運業的發展,越來越多的新港開始建設,舊港也在升級換代。上海振華重工總裁黃慶豐認為,建造新一代的智慧港口,實現碼頭智能化已成行業發展的必然趨勢。

    從1998年在荷蘭鹿特丹自動化碼頭項目的基礎上開始研究自動化碼頭裝備,到如今已成功打造國內外多個自動化碼頭項目,自主創新研發出新一代全自動化碼頭裝卸系統,上海振華重工相信,智能化碼頭的未來是光明的。

    然而,自動化碼頭的推廣使用并不是沒有障礙。受制于成本壓力,以及設備可靠性的擔憂,自動化碼頭的進一步推廣還面臨一些現實壓力。

    首先是成本較高,一次性投資大令企業望而卻步。

    影響自動化普及的最重要因素是成本壓力。從全壽命期成本看,自動化的成本很低;但在短期內,成本卻很高。國內碼頭目前的裝卸費率普遍不高,用戶投資的回報周期太長,也讓投資者在投資上更加謹慎。

    其次,風險也大,穩定性和可靠性仍有待觀察。

    一旦實現自動化,無論是操作系統還是自動化設備都不允許“試錯”,因為一旦發生故障,很有可能導致整個碼頭生產癱瘓,這對于一個日集裝箱吞吐量達到100萬箱的碼頭而言是不可想象的。

    另外,自動化碼頭的推進還需要打通供應商、集成商、應用商的產業鏈條,構建自動化研發與應用平臺,由巴掌變拳頭,推動核心項目的突破與應用。

    比如,可以借鑒國外經驗,像印度那樣把國內十個大型港口成立一個聯盟,打造一個自動化碼頭創新平臺,每個港口投入10%,共同尋找集成商和供應商,一旦項目和產品取得突破,這十大港口都是受益者。

    或者,像日本那樣推廣應用自動化裝備。針對機器人產業發展,日本1980年制定了“財政投資融資租賃制度”和“中小企業設備現代化貸款制度和設備借款制度”,并推出了機電一體化稅制,旨在鼓勵企業推廣應用自動化裝備。(賈遠琨)


    2017年12月01日

    王文斌會見香港商務及經濟發展局局長邱騰華
    經濟日報:四個翻番是這樣實現的

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